Testing the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and safety in animal models is a crucial step in vaccine development. Pigs raised in germ-free environments, called gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs, are one of the most useful animal models for testing vaccines. The Gn pig model is a widely accepted model for studying pathogenesis and immunity and an ideal model for pre-clinical testing for the safety and efficacy of enteric viral vaccines. Through these studies and others, the Gn pig model has been established as the most reliable animal model for pre-clinical evaluation of human rotavirus and norovirus vaccines. This book provides detailed information on establishing Gn pig models, determining a proper virus inoculum pool and challenge dose, measuring protection and calculating efficacy, and delineating intestinal and systemic immune responses associated with the protection.
Provides a natural history of human rotavirus and norovirus infection in Gn pigs Establishes the optimal virus challenge doses in Gn pigs for vaccine evaluation Evaluates various candidate rotavirus and norovirus vaccines Discusses human gut microbiota transplanted Gn pig models Documents the role of probiotics and rice bran as prophylactics and vaccine adjuvants