Water is needed for various bodily functions such as synthesis and structure of cell constituents and for transporting nutrients into the cells. Contaminants in water can potentially affect these functions, leading to short-term or long-term illnesses. Some contaminants can be readily identified by examining the odor, flavor, color and turbidity of water. However, majority of the contaminants are difficult to identify and require testing to determine whether water is contaminated or not. Poor sanitation and water contamination have been linked to the spread of illnesses such as diarrhea, hepatitis A, polio, cholera, dysentery and typhoid. Water treatment involves the removal of unwanted components and contaminants or reduction of their concentration to make the water suitable for its intended end-use. Coagulation, flocculation, sludge drying, fluoridation, distillation or boiling, disinfection, settling or sedimentation, filtration, pH correction, and chemical treatment are some of the treatment strategies and techniques used for the purification of contaminated water. This book aims to shed light on some of the unexplored aspects of water contamination and its treatment strategies. Those in search of information to further their knowledge will be greatly assisted by this book.