This book is a collective effort by leading South African researchers in agricultural economics. The book reviews policies and challenges in the agricultural economy which aim to promote equitable participation and transformation for a better future. South Africa is faced with urgent challenges: inequality has to be replaced with equity; poverty needs to be substantially reduced; living standards need to be improved; and growth needs to be maintained while keeping production internationally competitive. The agricultural sector has a crucial role to play in the process of achieving growth with equity. This book examines: structure and production in agriculture; income and employment growth in rural areas, including land distribution; agricultural marketing; water usage and food security; international trade and agricultural finance; research and development policy; and trade patterns in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). South African agriculture is currently characterized by a commercial modern sector, an emerging farmer sector and a subsistence sector. The strategic plan for South African agriculture is to unite these sectors into a prosperous agricultural industry. This book suggests policies that will enhance this process and ensure that agriculture continues to produce food at reasonable prices, earning foreign exchange and providing income to the rural poor.