The theoretical and practical aspects of the functioning of federal systems on the African continent are covered in this study. It presents an opportunity to familiarize the reader in great detail with the Nigerian federation, past and present, vis- -vis the national question and the problem of fiscal federalism. The book also reveals the subject of ethnic federalism in its pure form as exemplified in Ethiopia. Furthermore, it analyzes the use of hybrid, quasi-federative policy instruments in countries such as Tanzania, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, and Kenya amongst others. It addresses the issue of the opportunistic use of the federal idea, its abuse in various socio-economic and political circumstances (Nigeria), as well as the occasional and sometimes very short exposition of federalism (Madagascar) and confederalism (Senegambia). In general, the articles in the book present federalism from different angles, revealing the complex and contradictory nature of the concept and the ambiguous experience of its implementation in the African reality.