About one third of the land surface of the world is either arid or semi-arid. The lack of freshwater resources in these regions constitutes a major deterrent to their sustainable development. Notwithstanding the water shortage, water continues to be used unwisely, wasted and polluted. This book begins with a discussion about data collection and processing, and continues with a discussion of the effect of climate change on water resources, rainfall simulators and analysis of precipitation, evaporation and evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff modeling, transport of sediment and agricultural chemicals, flood and drought frequency analysis, stochastic analysis and hydrologic applications. Surface Water Hydrology will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the field of hydrology, environmental engineering, agricultural engineering, and watershed and range sciences, as well as to those engaged in water resources planning, development and management in arid and semi-arid areas.