What Future Human Continue Development Research (Social Science) (Paperback)

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Discovery new health medicine drugs major factorWhy do we need to concern new health medicine drugs discovery? I believe that human will face any new kinds of diseases that we had not encountered or contacts in my past. If we lack any new kinds of health medicine drugs discovery to fight any kinds of new diseases in my future. Then, we must face death very easily, such as COVID 19 is one kind of new disease, the another person or other persons can be contacted to cause this kind of COVID 19 disease by the patient's cloths, shoes, hands, even air, mouth of hs body and things. Thus, it had caused many people die in global nowadays. So, medicine or drug or bio-scientists need to spend much time to do any experiment to attempt to discover any new kinds of medicines or drugs to fight any future new kinds of diseases. Otherwise, human will die very easily in soon.⦁Why do we need drug discovery?In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered. Historically, drugs were discovered by identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery, as with penicillin. More recently, chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that had a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. After sequencing of the human genome allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has become common practice to use high throughput screening of large compounds libraries against isolated biological targets which are hypothesized to be disease-modifying in a process known as reverse pharmacology. Hits from these screens are then tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy.However, modern drug discovery involves the identification of screening hits, medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, selectivity (to reduce the potential of side effects), efficacy/potency, metabolic stability (to increase the half-life), and oral bioavailability. Once a compound that fulfills all of these requirements has been identified, the process of drug development can continue. If successful, clinical trials are developed. Modern drug discovery is thus usually a capital-intensive process that involves large investments by pharmaceutical industry corporations as well as national governments (who provide grants and loan guarantees). Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, "expensive, difficult, and inefficient process" with low rate of new therapeutic discovery. For example, in 2010, the research and development cost of each new molecular entity was about US$1.8 billion In the 21st century, basic discovery research is funded primarily by governments and by philanthropic organizations, while late-stage development is funded primarily by pharmaceutical companies or venture capitalists. However, discovering drugs that may be a commercial success, or a public health success, involves a complex interaction between investors, industry, academia, patent laws, regulatory exclusivity, marketing and the need to balance secrecy with communication. Meanwhile, for disorders whose rarity means that no large commercial success or public health effect can be expected, the orphan drug funding process ensures that people who experience those disorders can have some hope of pharmacotherapeutic advances. ⦁Where do new drugs come from? Why does it take so long to get a new drug approved? Why are drugs so expensive?
Product Details
ISBN: 9798593410610
Publisher: Independently Published
Publication Date: January 11th, 2021
Pages: 264
Language: English
Series: Social Science